Tag Archives: gcse chemistry

Extraction of metals and the Bronze Age

The reactivity of the metals determines how abundantly they are found on the earth. And an appreciation of their reactivity gives us a timeline of our own development as a species. A study of the reactivity of metals is also a study of very own history. This part of AQA and Edexcel GCSE is one I go through with students all the time. How the Bronze age started and then the Iron Age. All linked to the reactivity series.

Early Bronze Age Tools

Pre-historic humans used stone tools and items in their day to day lives. Tool making was a big deal indeed. But we couldn’t have known of metals besides silver and gold as they were all locked away in unrecognisable oxide form.

A most remarkable discovery moved us from the Stone Age period into the Bronze age. Bronze is an alloy (mixture of metals) of Copper and Tin. And copper would have been found as copper ore in nature. An accidental hot fire near a copper ore in the presence of coal (which contains Carbon, which is more reactive than Copper) would have revealed copper’s true existence. The Carbon reduced the Copper Oxide into Copper. A beautiful gold like substance, soft and malleable. It must have been an extraordinary discovery of its time and it changed the game for humans. We were now able to make much much more sophisticated tooling, ornaments and jewelry. It was the first metal we discovered and set us on a path to more discoveries later.

Here are a couple of great videos that show how a green ore of Copper called Malachite can easily be reduced into Copper. The implications of discovering Copper, and how it was a prime trade item are shown on the videos.

This is a superb resource for GCSE AQA Chemistry students studying the C2 module, or the iGCSE Edexcel 1C modules, both of which I tutor. And if as a student you are feeling bogged down by learning cold facts, then these videos will bring it all to life again.

Do you have any thoughts on the magic of Copper? Feel free to comment 🙂

Gas Tests Video Demonstrations for Chemistry

Anyone who knows me knows that two things that I really love are tutoring (with any practical element in it) and rock music. It is awesome that the two have been so flawlessly combined in this video.

Chemistry is really best experienced by doing experiments yourself. But that’s not always possible and thanks to the world of sharing videos, we now have the next best thing. To see videos of experiments. This is a lot better than reading about it. In this video a school Science teacher demonstrates the three core gas test that are relevant for GCSE and Common Entrance 13+ Chemistry. Here they are as shown on the video

  • Oxygen –  Will re-light a glowing splint.
  • Hydrogen – A squeaky pop sound is heard as the Hydrogen is lit.
  • Carbon dioxide – As Carbon dioxide gas is passed through clear limewater, it goes cloudy/milky coloured. Carbon dioxide will also put out a flame. This is why it is used in some fire extinguishers

So there you have it, a very clear and Joe Satriani type rock ‘n roll guitar soundtrack to demonstrate some of the most basic Chemistry gas tests. The tune is called “The Redshift Riders”. Satch must know his Physics as well to use that name 🙂